Rehabilitation after rotator cuff surgery plays a vital role in getting you back to your daily activities. A physical therapy program will help you regain shoulder strength and motion.
After surgery, therapy progresses in stages. At first, the repair needs to be protected while the tendon heals. To keep your arm from moving, you will most likely use a sling and avoid using your arm for the first 4 to 6 weeks. How long you require a sling depends upon the severity of your injury.
Passive Exercise Rehabilitation
Even though your tear has been repaired, the muscles around your arm remain weak. Once your surgeon decides it is safe for you to move your arm and shoulder, a therapist will help you with passive exercises to improve range of motion in your shoulder. With passive exercise, your therapist supports your arm and moves it in different positions. In most cases, passive exercise is begun within the first 2 weeks after surgery.
Active Exercise Rehabilitation
After 4 to 6 weeks, you will progress to doing active exercises without the help of your therapist. Moving your muscles on your own will gradually increase your strength and improve your arm control. At 8 to 12 weeks, your therapist will start you on a strengthening exercise program.
Expect a complete recovery to take several months. Most patients have a functional range of motion and adequate strength by 4 to 6 months after surgery. Although it is a slow process, your commitment to rehabilitation is key to a successful outcome.
The majority of patients report improved shoulder strength and less pain after surgery and rehabilitation for a torn rotator cuff.
Each surgical repair technique (open, mini-open, and arthroscopic) has similar results in terms of pain relief, improvement in strength and function, and patient satisfaction. Surgeon expertise is more important in achieving satisfactory results than the choice of technique.
Factors that can decrease the likelihood of a satisfactory result include:
- Poor tendon/tissue quality
- Large or massive tears
- Poor patient compliance with rehabilitation and restrictions after surgery
- Patient age (older than 65 years)
- Smoking and use of other nicotine products
- Workers’ compensation claims
After rotator cuff surgery, a small percentage of patients experience complications. In addition to the risks of surgery in general, such as blood loss or problems related to anaesthesia, complications of rotator cuff surgery may include:
- Nerve injury
This typically involves the nerve that activates your shoulder muscle (deltoid).
Patients are given antibiotics during the procedure to lessen the risk for infection. If an infection develops, an additional surgery or prolonged antibiotic treatment may be needed..
Early rehabilitation lessens the likelihood of permanent stiffness or loss of motion. Most of the time, stiffness will improve with more aggressive therapy and exercise.
- Tendon re-tear
There is a chance for re-tear following all types of repairs. The larger the tear, the higher the risk of re-tear. Patients who re-tear their tendons usually do not have greater pain or decreased shoulder function. Repeat surgery is needed only if there is severe pain or loss of function.